• #4-7. Types of PDRN/PN and Cosmetic Procedures



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    1. M. Borg, et al. The role of cytokines in skin aging. CLIMACTERIC. 2013; 16: 1–8.

    2. MAKOTO TSUNENAGA, et. al. Laminin 5 Can Promote Assembly of the Lamina Densa in the Skin Equivalent Model. Matri× Biology. 1998; 17: 603-613.

    3. Peter D. Yurchenco, Integrating Activities of Laminins that Drive Basement Membrane Assembly and Function. Current Topics in Membranes. 2015; 76.

    4. Ernst Pöschl, et al. Collagen Ⅳ is essential for basement membrane stability but dispensable for initiation of its assembly during early development. Development. 2004 Apr; 131(7): 1619-1628.

    5. Francesco Squadrito, et al. Pharmacological Activity and ClinicalUse of PDRN, Frontiers in Pharmacology. April 2017; 8.



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    6. Alessandra Bitto, MD, et al. Polydeoxyribonucleotide improves angiogenesis and wound healing in experimental thermal injury. Crit Care Med. 2008 May; 36(5): 1594-1602.

    7. Silvana Belletti, et al. Polydeoxyribonucleotide promotes cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer repair in UVB exposed dermal fibroblasts. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2007 Dec; 23(6): 242-249.

    8. Trung T. Nguyen, Shahriar Mobashery and Mayland Chang. Roles of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Cutaneous Wound Healing. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/64611.

    9. Jung-Won Shin et al. Molecular Mechanisms of Dermal Aging and Antiaging Approaches. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019; 20: 2126.

    10. Antonella tosti. Atlas of Mesotherapy in Skin Rejuvenation. New York: CRC Press, 2007.

    11. Tandara AA, Mustoe TA. MMP-and TIMP-secretion by human cutaneous keratinocytes and fibroblasts–impact of coculture and hydration. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2011; 64(1): 108–116.

    12. Toshio Nishiyama, et al. The importance of laminin 5 in the dermal–epidermalbasement membrane. Journal of Dermatological Science. 2000; 25(Suppl. 1): S51–S59.

    13. Tosti A, De Padova MP. Atlas of Mesotherapy in Skin Rejuvenation. London: Informa, 2007.

    14. Imokawa G. Mechanism of UVB-induced wrinkling of the skin: paracrine cytokine linkage between keratinocytes and fibroblasts leading to the stimulation of elastase. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2009; 14(1): 36–43.



    Table 4. Mechanism of Collagen Remodeling by EBD.




    -To be continued

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